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Communal Water Supply Systems: Content, technical design

Below a description is given of a water kiosk that would suit as a pilot: 

The operation is run by community members, current water sellers or other entrepreneurs. Operators/ middle-men collect water and bring it to the houses (200-300 kyat per bottle) or people collect water in reusable water bottles themselves (50-100 kyat ). 

The cost of water depends on filter technique and water sources probably between 60 and 300 MMK per 20 L (compare to the current of 200-400).

Design Option 1: Simple Filtering System 

Nazava Pure System or similar local system, Costs: ca. $120/ MMK 160.000

  • 120 litre per hour so one gallon takes 6 minutes
  • modular so additional capacity can be added
  • only for clear water sources (or prefiltration needed) (rainwater, piped water, deep well)
    • not: retention lake 
  • need manual cleaning of filters
  • Does not need electricity, only 0.8 bar water pressure.
  • Serves op to 10 households. 
  • 95 kyat per 20L gallon 
  1. can be used for community system – some houses etc, without an enterprise 
  2. or as a kiosk – buying water – as an enterprise 
  • for scaling, you need more locations 

needs cleaning every week – changing filters ca. 1/year 

Communal Water Supply Systems- Content, technical design

Design Option 2:  More Extensive Filtering System 

System with prefilters, Costs (200 hh) – 4.000 l/day

  • around $1200/MMK 1.600.000 for filters only; // $3500
  • $2500/ MMK 3.200.000 including housing, cleaning materials and pump.
  • 500 litre per hour so one gallon takes only a few seconds
  • Electricity needed for UVC light or RO, or Ultrafiltration (no electricity needed)
  • Works as well with surface or well water
  • 300 euro costs for replacement parts per year – materials 1/year or 1/6 months // needs daily maintenance (backwashing prefilters)
  • serves 200 households @20l/ day
  • Modular so can be scaled. 
  • All materials available in Myanmar, only need to ensure the quality of UVC light
  • ca. 300 MMK for 20 L gallon  

Note: if you hire an operator, costs will NOT be lower than current commercial suppliers.It can be installed with a water tower – then not much electricity is needed. Iron-heavy sources need more maintenance! (only shallow/deep well water)

Communal Water Supply Systems_content_technical design2

Other examples: 

Water Kiosk/ Shop (example by Cordaid water kiosk built in Hlaing Tharyar)

It uses a reverse osmosis system and is run by the local community set up as a social enterprise. In the dry season, the shop serves ca. 17.000 people/day with the cost of 400-500 kyat/ 20 L . The Implementation cost of the system was ca. $23.000, at the moment they make a bit of profit, so they can save money for maintenance. There is also a financial monitoring team that provides Cordaid with a financial overview of costs (resources) and profits (bottles sold) – so Cordaid can monitor and support if needed.


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